Anterior Knee Pain in Athletes: Surgical Management
David P Johnson
Optimum knee function is of vital importance in a wide variety of sports.
Knee stability is important in runniing, twisting, jumping and pivoting.
Injuries to the knee are very common because of the lack of bony congruity
and its reliance on muscular and ligamentous support. Knee injuries are
the most common serious injury during sporting activities.
Anterior knee pain affects 29% of adolescent children (Fairbank 1984).
This may be related to the increase in structured sporting activity which
occurs at school during early adolescence. Anterior knee pain is particularly
prevalent in certain sports which include basketball, netball, athletics,
skiing and cyclling. In these sports activities are undertaken whilst
the knee is in a flexed position, and or jumping is common. To understand
the patho-mechanics of anterior knee pain, the anatony, clinical examination
and mechanics of the knee must be well understood. Much of the confusion
surrounding anterior knee pain has been produced by the inability of the
practitioner to translate distinct clinical problems into a specific classification.
This applies whether they be a general practitioner or hospital consultant
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE PATELLO-FEMORAL JOINT
The anatomy of the knee can be broadly divided into the three joints;
the patello-femoral articulation, the medial and the lateral tibio-femoral
joints. To understand the pathology of anterior knee pain this disctinction
is very important. The weight transfer across the tibio femoral joint
is aided by the menisci which distribute the compressive forces and reduce
pressure on any particular point. The patello femoral joint bears little
load whilst standing with the knee in extension. The patello-femoral contact
force is greatest between 30 and 70 degrees of knee flexion (Ficat et
al.). During flexion the site of contact on the patellar changes. The
area of contact of the patello femoral joint increases during knee flexion.
These mechanisms assist in dissipating the extra loading on the patello
femoral joint during flexion. None the less when descending stairs, jumping
or landing as in netball and basketball the compressive load across the
patello-femoral joint may reach five times the weight of the body (Ficat
The articular cartilage on the patella is up to 5 mm thick; thicker than
anywhere else in the skeleton. Besides allowing unresisted motion the
funtion of the articular cartilage is to help dissipate the compressive
forces and prevent excessive loading on the subchhondral bone plate. Such
pressure is interpreted as pain. Generally it is the extreem forces experienced
by the patello-femoral joint during sport result in the high incidence
of anterior knee pain in athletes.
PATHOMECHANICS OF ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN
The patella has a very important function in the mechanics of the knee.
The patella increases the moment of action of the quadriceps expansion
and increses the extensor force by a factor of two to threefold (Ref).
In the absence of the patella, such as following patellectomy, the strength
of the quadriceps muscle is diminished by at least 30%, the tibio femoral
compressive force is increased and degenerative change within the tibio
femmoral joint is increased (Ref).
ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN AS A SYMPTOM
It is important to realise that anterior knee pain is a symptom and not
a syndrome. It is insufficient for a clinician to make a diagnosis of
anterior knee pain as many different casuses have been identified. Whilst
it is true that in almost all cases of anterior knee pain an initial period
of quadriceps strengthening exercises, physiotherapy and non steroidal
anti-inflammatory medication will be prescribed. A provisional pathological
diagnosis as to the cause of the pain will give guidance to the physiotherapist,
podiatrist, sports trainer and coach. A provisional diagnosis will enable
the options for treatment to be discussed with the patient and therapists,
the surgical options can be idiscussed for those cases which do not settle
following the initial course of conservative treatment.
To make a provisional diagnosis the clinician should acurrately identify
the activity which precipitates the pain, the charachter of the pain and
the angle of knee flexion at which the pain is worst. Commonly patello-femoral
pain is exacerbated by activities such as descending or ascending stairs,
rising out of a chair or driving. These are the activities in which the
patello-femoral compressive forces are highest. Any associated clicking,
giving way or episodes of patello-femoral instability of the knee should
be identified. The exact site of the pain in the front of the knee must
be determined, whether iit is n the supra-patellar pouch, medial or lateral
retinaculum, retro-patellar, at the inferior pole of the patella, medial
or lateral part of the fat pad, the anterior horn of the menisci or tibial
tuberosity. Thus the history must be detailed and concentrated on the
symptoms pertaining to the patello-femoral joint.
CLINICAL EXAMINATION IN ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN
Anterior knee pain in athletes may be caused by extraneous problems.
In runners and athletes in general, analysis of shoe wear is important.
Badly worn shoes or poorly designed shoes may produce excessive foot pronation
and exacerbate any tendancy to flat feet which may precipitate anterior
knee pain. The running or playing surface may also be important, particularly
when excessive road running is undertaken. In these cases the pain may
be helped by running predominantly on grass rather than on roads. Podiatric
advice may be helpful and despite the reluctance of clinicans to consider
podiatry it is usually easier, cheaper and painless when compared with
Clinical examination should include examination of the feet, ankles hips
spine and the contralateral knee for stiffness, pain or a clinical deformity.
Common clinical pitfalls often mised above the knee are the painful stiff
hip, trochanteric bursitis, lumbar stiffness, spondylolysthesis and tight
hamstring muscles. Below the knee shin splints, stress fractures, ankle
stiffness and flat feet may be related to the anterior knee pain. Congenetal
multiple ligamentous laxity should also be specifically sought at it has
a significant effect on the treatment of anterior knee pain. / At the
knee the usual examination should be undertaken to exclude meniscal or
ligamentous injuries and early arthritis. The range of motion and alignment
of the limb in terms of varus and valgus deformity at the knee must be
determined. Special attention must be paid to palpate the anterior part
of the menisci to exclude an anterior horn meniscal tear. This is best
done with the knee in the position of flexion. One should also be aware
that both anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injuries may present
with anterior knee pain.
Examination of the front of the knee necessarily needs to be detailed
and accurate. Inspection may detect swelling as seen with prepatellar
bursitis or Osgood Schlatters disease in which the tibial tuberosity is
swollen. An effusion indicates an intra-articular pathology. Palpation
should start in the suprapatellar pouch and move down the patellar retinaculum
either side of the patella into the fat pad which lies to either side
of the patella tendon. A tender synovial fold or plica may be palpated
in this region arround the patella. I then prefer to palpate the tibial
tuberosity followed by the patellar tendon and the inferior pole of the
patella; the site of tenderness in patellar tendonitis.
I then palpate the patella. The superficial surface is easy whilst the
posterior surface may be palpated by displacing the patella to the medial
side and palpating the exposed undersurface and repeating the manouvour
to the lateral side. The patella should then be compressed against the
femur as it is gently moved to the medial and lateral side and up and
down. This manouver may detect crepitus and roughness within the patello-femoral
joint, pain may also be elicited. The patello-femoral joint should also
be compressed as the knee is flexed. This may elicit crepitus, and this
test may also reproduce the pain experienced. / If patello-femoral subluxation
or dislocation is suspected, the apprehension test is performed in which
the patella is displaced laterally whilst the knee is extended. Apprehension
may be produced by the fear of an impending dislocation and the knee is
involuntarily flexed to prevent the patella subluxing. This test is usually
negative if dislocation has not previously occured. If the excursion of
the patella to the lateral side is restricted by a tight lateral patellar
retinaculum, lateral patella hyperpressure syndrome may be suspected in
which the tight lateral retinaculum tilts the patella laterally during
flexion compressing the lateral side of the patello-femoral joint causing
RADIOGRAPHY OF THE PATELLO-FEMORAL JOINT
The plain antero-posterior and lateral films are not ideal for pathology
suspected of being in the patello-femoral joint. Although the anterior-posterior
view may demonstrate a bipartite patella in which the patella develops
in two parts. The lateral view of the knee may demonstrate patella osteophytes
although this is usually only at a fairly advanced stage of arthritis.
The lateral view may show a patella alta (high patella) which is associated
with patella subluxation and dislocation, or a patella baja (low patella)
associated with retropatella pain and arthritis. Osgood-Schlatters disease
in which partial separation of the tibial tuberosity apophysis, or Sinding
Larsen Johansen's disease at the inferior pole of the patella may also
The best radiograph for the demonstration of patello-femoral pathology
is the skyline view taken in 30 degrees of knee flexion. This demonstrates
subluxation, patella tilt, lateral patella hyperpressure and any arthritis
or thining of the articular cartilage. Further information may be obtained
by repeating the skyline radiograph at 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion.
The concept of patello-femoral tilt was described by Lauren and he described
the lateral patello femoral angle. In the prescence of patello-femoral
tilt, this angle which is usually positive, may be reduced as the patella
tilts. Patello-femoral tilt may or may not exist with radiological subluxation
in which the patella is displaced laterally.
Arthrography although able to show synovial folds within the joint is
not now commonly used as scanning techniques reveal much more information.
Computerised Axial Scanning (CAT) scanning of the patello-femoral joint
has been superseed by Magnetic Resonance Immaging (MRI). MRI is the immaging
technique which reveals most information in patello-femoral pathology.
The relationship of the patella to the femoral trochlear is well shown.
Any synovial folds or plicae in the patella retinaculum or fibrosis of
the fat pad may be seen. Occasionally intra-articular tumours are demonstrated.
Using saggittal or coronal sections defects in the articular cartilage
can be shown on the patella or femoral trochlear. Other conditions particularly
those associated with soft tissue inflammation such as patellar tendonitis
are clearly defined.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy may affect the patella after a minor injury
or surgery. This condition is difficult to diagnose but may result in
chronic knee pain and stiffness of the knee. A radioisotope bone scan
demonstrates a charachteristic increased uptake.
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN
Patello-femmoral disorders causing anterior knee pain were well classified
by Merchant in1988. The classification divides the causes of anterior
knee pain into acute trauma, repetitive trauma, the late effects of trauma,
patello-femoral dysplasia, ideopathic chondromalacia, osteochondritis
dissecans, synovial plica and patello-femoral arthritis.
The most difficult area of classification is dysplasia of the patello-femoral
joint. Patello-femoral maltracking is a clinical sign which is exceedingly
difficult to describe, quantify or classify. It is best seen while the
knee is flexed while the examiner stands above the knee and looks down
along the patello-femoral joint. In normal situation the patella follows
a straight course as the knee flexes. The patella moves down in to the
femoral trochlea groove and into the intercondylar region. In lateral
maltracking the patella may move laterally particularly in the first 20
to 30 degrees of knee flexion before then moving medially to enter the
patello-femoral groove. The patella may or may not again move laterally
beyond 70 degrees of knee flexion. This may be associated with an increased
tibio-femoral 'Q' angle and external tibial torsion. Lateral patella tracking
is associated with anterior knee pain and chondromalacia although the
relationship has not been clearly defined.
LATERAL PATELLAR HYPERPRESSURE
As described this condition in which excessive tightness in the lateral
retinaculum produces lateral tilt and excessive compression in the lateral
facet of the patello-femoral joint. The sky line radiograph taken at 30
degrees of knee flexion may show lateral tilt of the patella onto the
lateral facet. This condition is associated with and possibly produces
chondromalacia patella on the lateral patella facet and eventually produce
lateral facet osteoarthitis of the patello-femoral joint. This is one
of the conditions in which lateral release of the patella may have good
results and possibly prevent the progression to arthritis of the patello-femoral
Patello-femoral subluxation may be obvious when the patient recounts
episodes in which the patella partially dislocates prior to relocating
in the patello-femoral joint. Alternatively, the knee may have a feeling
of being weak or giving way particularly whilst descending stairs or during
sporting activities. Clinical examination may reveal lateral subluxation
or lateral patello-femoral tracking. Additional signs such as patella
alta, hypoplastic lateral femoral condyle, increased femoral-tibial 'Q'
angle, persistent femoral anteversion, external tibial torsion or multiple
ligamentous laxity may be present. Clinical examination may reveal a positive
apprehension test. Sky line radiographs taken at 30 degrees of knee flexion
may demonstrate patello-femoral tilt or overhang. The sky-line radiograph
may demonstrate overhang of the lateral border of the patella beyond the
lateral femoral condyles. The patello-femoral congruence angle as described
by Merchant may be beyond the normal 16 degrees. CT or MRI scans have
recently been demonstrated to be very effective in the demonstration of
patello-femoral subluxation. Scanning has the advntage in that it can
be performed in with the knee in full extension 10, 20 and 30 degrees
of knee flexion when minor degrees of patello-femoral subluxation may
be demonstrated, whereas these minor degrees of subluxation may not be
apparent on the sky line view taken at 30 degrees of knee flexion.
Patello-femoral subluxation or dislocation may be associated with damage
to the medial facet of the patella or even chondral or osteochondral fractures.
Chondromalacia, like anterior knee pain, is not a syndrome. Chondromalacia
is the pathological appearance of fragmentation of the articular surface
of the patella. The condition is usually associated with knee pain, chondromalacia
has been reported as being present in 60% of normal adolescent children.
One must also remember that the articular cartilage is insensitivie. If
the articular cartilage fails to distribute the load, excessive force
is then transmitted to the subchondral bone plate, deformation of the
bone occurs which is interpreted by the feeling of pain. It must be remembered
that the frons of cartilage seen are not the cause of pain but are produced
by excessive stress. Removal of any functional articular cartilage whilst
removing loose fronds of articular cartilage is detrimental as additional
stree will be bourne by the subchondreal bone plate producing more not
If the chondromalacia is of Grade 3 or 4, in which full thickness damage
has occurred to the articular cartilage, then debridement of the loose
articular cartilage may reveal the subchondral plate. In such circumstances,
abrasion chondroplasty or drilling of the subchondral bone plate may be
undertaken in an attempt to allow the ingress of fibrous tissue to cover
the exposed bone. However as one might expect, the fibrous tissue which
coveres the defect will only partially replace the function of the articular
cartilage. The resistance of the fibrous scar to abrasion will be limited.
Chondromalacia may be secondary to lateral hyperpressure or patello-femoral
subluxation when it is limited to the lateral facet. Medial facet chondromalacia
may be associated with episodes of patello-femoral dislocation. In this
way, chondromalacia may be secondary to other pathological conditions
and treatment of the primary cause may alleviate the problem. Idiopathic
chondromalacia also exists in which the patella may generally be affected.
In ideiopathic or generalised chondromalacia the treatment is much more
difficult. A reduction in patello-femoral contact force may be produced
by a Maquet type osteotomy advancing the tibial tuberosity forwards. This
reduces the patello-femoral contact force but may be associated with a
reduction in patello-femoral contact area and therefore not relieve the
patello-femoral pain. At best improvement is only in 50% of patients,
whilst the deformity and scar is commonly disfiguring.
Chronic patello-femoral dislocation may be congenital or acquired. The
acquired condition is usually associated with intra muscular injections
into the quadriceps muscle during the neonatal period. A progressive fibrosis
of the quadriceps muscle occurs which eventually produces recurrent, then
habitual and finally chronic patello-femoral dislocation.
Osteochondritis dissecans was first described by Andrew Parry who removed
a loose body in 1558. Paget described quiet necrosis of the knee in 1870
although Conning first described osteochondritis in 1888. Osteochondritis
may present as anterior knee pain, recurrent swelling, locking or giving
way. The most common site is on the lateral aspect of the intercondylar
region of the medial femoral condyle. The lateral femoral condyle or patella
may also be affeced. The arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis was
reviewed by Gull in 1985. Arthroscpic fixation of a loose osteochondral
fragment of the patella may require knee arthrotomy . If the fragment
of bone has become detached or fragmented and replacement with fixation
is innaproppriate, debridement of the defect may be undertaken arthroscopically.
/SYNOVIAL PLICAE/ Recently the importance of synovial plica in the production
of anerior knee pain has been recognised. Plicae may cause pseudolocking
and may even mimic acute internal derangement of the knee (Hughston at
al. 1963, Pipkin 1971). The presentation of the syndrome may be delayed
until symptoms are precipitated by inflammation within the plica secondary
to an injury or a diminution in the elasticity of the plica which occurs
with age. The symptoms are due to the plica bowstringing across the femoral
condyle on knee flexion (Patel 1986).
Plicae represent the remnants of the three separate synovial cavities
present in the synovial mesenchyme of the developing knee which coalesce
into one cavity at the 12 week stage of foetal growth (Gray and Gardner
1950). If the reabsorption of the divisions between the superior, the
medial and the lateral cavities is incomplete then a medial supra-patellar
plica, a lateral supra-patellar plica, or alternatively a supra-patellar
membrane may result depending on the degree of reabsorption (Fig 1, Fig
2, Fig 3). A supra-patellar membrane may be complete such that a separate
supra-patellar pouch exists which does not communicate with the knee joint
(Fig 3). The membrane may be incomplete with an opening or `porta` from
the supra-patellar pouch into the knee joint proper. Incomplete reabsorption
elsewhere in the knee may result in the medial or lateral shelf or the
anterior plica (Ogata and Uhthoff 1990) (Fig 1, Fig 2).
Synovial plicae of the knee were first described in anatomic dissections
by Fullerton in 1916, and by Mayeda in 1918 (Fullerton 1916, Mayeda 1918).
The plicae were variously named ligamentum alaria, plica alaria, ligamentum
mucosa, medio-patellar plica or a lateral alar fold. The arthroscopic
appearances were first described by Iino, in 1939, and subsequently by
Patel and Watanabe. He classified their appearances into four types (Iino
1939, Patel 1978, Watanabe, Takeda and Ikeuchi 1979). The medial and lateral
bands along the upper border of the patella in a horizontal plane are
the supero-medial plica or supero-lateral plica, or a supra patellar membrane
(Fig 3). The plicae to the medial and lateral side of the patella running
from the fat pad to the side of the patellar retinaculum in the coronal
plane are the medial or lateral synovial shelf (Fig 2). The fold running
from the fat pad to the intercondylar notch of the femur overlying the
anterior cruciate ligament is called the anterior plica and is the most
common plica in the knee (Fig 1, Fig 2). The medial shelf is the next
most frequently encountered plica, the lateral shelf being less common.
A complete supra-patellar membrane has been reported to be present in
2% of knees, incomplete membranes being more common (Johnson 1981). The
plica syndrome has been reported in siblings (Reid et al. 1980).
Post-mortem studies have shown plicae to occur in 20 - 50% of normal
people (Hardaker, Whipple and Basset 1980, Wilhelm 1983, Zanoli and Piazzai
1983), with the highest incidence in people of Japanese descent (Mayeda
1918, Iino 1939, Aoki 1965, Sakakibara 1976, Jackson, Marshall and Fujisawa
1982). A 40 - 80% incidence of synovial plicae in arthroscopic examinations
has been reported (Mizumachi, Kawaiashima and Okamura 1948, Broukhim et
al. 1979, San Dretto et al. 1982, Johnson 1981, Dandy 1986).
There is some controversy as to the prevalance of the plica syndrome
and some reports even suggest that the pathological synovial plica does
not exist, the plicae being a normal vestigial finding present in up to
60% of normal knees (Jackson 1980, Dandy 1981, Dandy 1986). Jackson, Dandy
and others believe that plicae may be pathological but that overdiagnosis
of the syndrome occurs, and many normal synovial shelves are removed (Jackson
1980, Hardaker, Whipple and Bassett 1980, Jackson, Marshall and Fujisawa
1982, Apple 1983, Zanoli and Piazzai 1983, Dupont 1985, Broom and Fulkerson
1986, Dandy 1986, Patel 1986, Lupi et al. 1990). Dandy considered only
1% of synovial plicae to be associated with a symptomatic medial shelf
syndrome, and that the other plicae are not pathological (Dandy 1986).
Conversely other authors consider the plica syndrome to be a common cause
of anterior knee pain and often mis-diagnosed. It has been claimed that
the supra-patellar membrane is virtually never asymptomatic (Nottage et
al. 1983, Fujisawa, Jackson and Marshall 1976, Johnson 1981).
Attempts have been made to quantify the occurrence of pathological plicae
by analysing the histological findings of arthroscopic plical biopsies.
Wilhelm reported histological findings of fibrosis indicative of chronic
inflammation in 15% of a series of 186 medial shelf biopsies (Wilhelm
1983). Whilst Mital reported plical haemorrhage in 9 of 16 biopsies (Mital
and Hayden 1979).
Sherman described a set of criteria for the diagnosis of pathological
synovial plicae. The criteria consisted of: 1- a history of the appropriate
clinical symptoms, 2- the failure of conservative treatment, 3- the arthroscopic
findings of a plica with an avascular fibrotic edge which impinged on
the medial femoral condyle during knee flexion, 4- no other knee pathology
which would explain the symptoms (Sherman and Jackson 1989). However Jackson
commented that the severity of symptoms is not proportional to the size
or breadth of the synovial plica (Jackson, Marshall and Fujisawa 1982),
and Richmond found no correlation between the duration of symptoms and
the presence of pathological changes in the plica (Richmond and McGinty
1983). It has been suggested that an impingement lesion, which is a localised
area of chondromalacia at the site of femoral condyle impingement is evidence
that a plica is pathological.
Detection of synovial plicae as the cause of anterior knee pain is dependant
on recognition of the relevant clinical symptoms and the absence of signs
except perhaps for a palpable tender synovial band. Plicae are not well
seen on plain radiographs, but a double contrast arthrogram may demonstrate
the supra-patellar membrane and a synovial shelf. Double contrast arthrography
may demonstrate a supra-patellar plicae in 20% of cases (Pipkin 1950,
Apple et al. 1982, San Dretto et al. 1982, Aprin, Shapiro and Gershwind
1984, Lupi et al. 1990). The arthrographic appearances of the anterior
plicae are often mistaken for the anterior cruciate ligament (Brody et
al. 1983). A synovial shelf is more difficult to demonstrate by arthrography
but the skyline view may demonstrate the synovial shelf (Deutsch et al.
1981, De la Caffiniere, Thijn and Hillen 1984).
Ultrasonography has been reported as having a sensitivity of 92% and
a specificity of 73% in the detection of plicae (Derks, de Hooge and Van
Linge 1986). A radio-isotope technetium bone scan may show some focal
increased uptake in association with an impingement lesion on the femoral
condyle, but is otherwise normal (Brill 1984, Dye and Bell 1986). Computerised
axial tomography (CT) has proven useful in the visualisation of the supra-patellar
membrane but the synovial shelf is easily missed (Boven, De Boeck and
Potvliege 1983, Schutzer, Ramsey and Fulherson 1986). The axial images
of a Magnetic Resonance Scan (MRI) has in one study, proven to be a more
useful mode of investigation than a CT Scan for the detection of synovial
plicae and chondromalacia (Passariello et al. 1986). Radiographic and
other modalities of investigation may be helpful in the clinical situation
where the diagnosis is in doubt but are not routinely used in the detection
of the plica syndrome which remains a clinical diagnosis confirmed during
The results of the treatment of anterior knee pain are notoriously difficult
to assess objectively, primarily because a wide variety of conditions
are usually gathered together under the category of anterior knee pain
or chondromalacia patella (De Haven, Dolon and Mager 1979). In addition
little account is taken of the reported natural improvement in the symptoms
of anterior knee pain with time (Goodfellow, Hungerford and Woods 1976).
Studies in this field must analyse the conditions included carefully and
a randomised control group with long term assessment is necessary (Bentley
and David 1984).
The conservative treatment of the plica syndrome involves; quadriceps,
hamstring and gastrocnemious stretching and isometric strengthening, cryotherapy,
ultrasound, microwave diathermy, patellar bracing, bicycle riding, anti-inflammatory
medication and an altered sports training schedule (Zanoli and Piazzai
1983, Newell and Bramwell 1984, Fisher 1986, Subotnick and Sisney 1986,
Amatuzzi, Fazzi and Varella 1990). The results of such treatments in an
uncontrolled study were an improvement in 40% of cases over a one year
period (Rovere and Nichols 1985). Conversely Aprin suggested that, in
knees in which an arthrogram demonstrated impingement of the plica on
the femoral condyle in flexion, conservative treatment resulted in no
long term improvement (Aprin, Shapiro and Gershwind 1984).
Injection of the synovial plicae with steroid and local anaesthetic in
another uncontrolled study gave excellent results in 73% of patients (Rovere
and Adair 1985), although percutaneous injection of the thin intra-articular
band of the plicae must be difficult and reliable placement impossible.
Unfortunately all the studies on the surgical treatment of the plica
syndrome are uncontrolled, non-randomised and often include a variety
of pathologies (Patel 1978). Open knee arthrotomy and excision of the
plica was first reported by Hughston (Hughston, Andrews and Waddell 1973)
but has subsequently been reported by other authors (Patel 1978, De la
Caffiniere, Mignot and Bruch 1981, Moller 1981). Arthrotomy has been superseded
by the arthroscopic treatment of plicae which has been associated with
good results in 60 - 90% of cases (Mital and Hayden 1979, Watanabe, Takeda
and Ikeuchi 1979, Jackson, Marshall and Fujisawa 1982, Vaughan-Lane and
Dandy 1982, Richmond and McGinty 1983, Zanoli and Piazzai 1983, Kinnard
and Levesque1984, Bough and Regan 1985, Koshino and Okamoto 1985, Broom
and Fulkerson 1986, O`Dwyer and Peace 1988, Sherman and Jackson 1989).
Arthroscopic plical excision has also been demonstrated to reduce the
magnitude of the knee audiogram (Johnson 1981).
Chondromalacia patellae is commonly found in association with synovial
plicae (O`Dwyer and Peace 1988). This is thought to be an association
of two separate conditions in the same population (Patel 1978, Hansen
and Boe 1989). Some studies have demonstrated inferior results following
arthroscopic plica surgery when other pathologies such as chondromalacia
patellae or patello-femoral subluxation are simultaneously present in
the knee (De la Caffiniere, Mignot and Bruch 1981, Vaughan-Lane and Dandy
1982, Richmond and McGinty 1988, O`Dwyer and Peace 1988, Sherman and Jackson
1989). The overlap between the plica syndrome, lateral retinacular pain
and lateral facet hyper-pressure syndrome is indistinct (Larson et al.
1978, Schulitz, Hille and Kochs 1983) and the conditions may co-exist.
The situation following surgery may be further confused by a lateral release
performed for lateral retinacular pain or the lateral hyper-pressure syndrome
which may also divide any plicae present (Merchant and Mercer 1974, Larson
et al. 1978, McGinty and McCarthy 1981).
The main complication reported following arthroscopic surgery for synovial
plicae is recurrence of symptoms in 5% of cases (Richmond and McGinty
1983). This may result from reformation of the synovial band following
simple incision of the plicae, or scar formation around the base of the
excised plicae (Dandy 1981, Anderson and Poulson 1986). A case of lateral
patella subluxation has been reported following over-zealous resection
of a medial shelf and the medial retinacular structures (Limbird 1988).
As yet there has been no scientific study which shows synovial plicae
to be pathological or that division of the plicae is of any benefit to
the patient as compared to the natural improvement in adolescent anterior
knee pain which occurs with the passage of time. The aims of this study
were to determine if the synovial plicae of the knee is a pathological
entity rather than a normal variant, and to determine whether arthroscopic
division has any short or long term patient benefit when compared to a
randomised control group.
PATELLO - FEMORAL ARTHRITIS
Patello-femoral arthritis may be secondary to trauma, lateral hyperpressure,
lateral patello-femoral subluxation, patello-femoral dislocation or osteochondritis
dissecans of he patella. Posterior cruciate instability produces excessive
load in the patello-femoral joint and may be associated with early degenerative
change. Fixed flexion deformity of the knee or hip may also cause premature
changes in the patello-femoral joint due to excessive patello-femoral
Primary osteoarthritis of the patello-femoral joint may be particularly
prevalent in crystal arthropathy of pseudo gout or the hyperrophic variety
of osteoarthritis. In both these conditions the patello-femoral joint
may be affected by a flacid arthritis whilst the tibio-femoral joint is
THE CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN
The conservative treatment of anterior knee pain must initially consider
the extraneous causes. The running or playing surface may need changing
at least temporarily such that jogging or running can be performed on
grass or a soft surface rather than pavements or concrete. The shoe wear
may be changed with specialised shoes used for activities such as road
running. Additional custom made orthoses may be necessary to correct excessive
foot pronation, metatarsalgia, hallux rigidus, calcaneal varus or valgus,
equinus, femoral anteversion or external tibial torsion. / Physiotherapy
should be directed towards flexibility, posture, muscular strengthening
and the alaeviation of inflammation. Objective isokinetic muscular assessment
may be undertaken using a Kin-Com, Cybex or other similar computerised
dynamometer. In these machines the muscle strength is tested throughout
the range of motion and a graphic record of muscle function is produced.
This graphic record may be compared to the results from the opposite side
or with the results from the same side at different times during the rehabilitation.
The muscular balance between the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles and
between the concentric and eccentric modes of muscular contraction may
be compared and rehabilitation specifically concentrated on the observed
areas of weakness.
In the discussion of this modality it is important to understand the
terms used. Isometric exercises are undertaken with the maintenance of
muscular contraction at a constant low length with variable lows. Isotonic
activity is undertaken using muscular contraction against a constant load
varying the speed and the length of the muscles. Isokinetic activity is
undertaken with muscular contraction undertaken at a constant angular
velocity. The load and length of the muscle are varied. Concentric muscular
contraction is undertaken where shortening of the muscle length occurs
against loads. Eccentric contraction is where the muscle lengthens against
a load. A recent study demonstrates that the eccentric mode of isokinetic
activity may be the most sensitive in diagnostic evauluation and also
in muscular retraining.
When analysising the various patterns of activity, the phased hamstring
eccentric isokinetic analysis undertaken with an angular velocity of 180
degrees per second, reveals a deficit in function particularly associated
with loose bodies, torn lateral meniscus and osteochondral defects. Whereas
synovial plicae characteristically causes a reduction in the peak torque
generated between 40 and 80 degrees of flexion during eccentric quadriceps
activity at 60 degrees per second, the investigation may also be used
to assess the results of surgery in that the pattern of activity my be
restored to normal after excision of a synovial plica or other pathology.
The continual assessment is also useful during a rehabilitation phase
to analyse the return of muscular strength and to determine when return
to full activity is possible. This has been extensively used in association
with the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate surgery whereby return to
full sporting activities is usually allowed only after the attainment
of 90% of the muscular strength of the normal side.
Other mechanical and electrical modalities of physiotheraph such as cryotherapy,
ultrasound and mega-pulse electro-therapy may be used when soft tissue
inflammation is present. Patello-femoral bracing or tapeing to stabilise
the patello-femoral joint or to correct lateral maltracking may relieve
the pain from lateral patella tracking or patella subluxation. McConnell,
an Australian physiotherapist, described a complete programme of patello-femoral
rehabilitation which included retraining and strengthening the vastus
medialis muscle using bio-feedback to promote vastus medialis action early
in the phase of knee flexion. / Such conservative therapy may be supplemented
by non steroidal anti inflammatory medication as necessary, a steroid
injection into extra-articular soft tissues and non weight bearing tendons
may be of benefit. Injection into weight bearing tendons such as the achilles
tendon should be discouraged as reupture may be precipitated. Repeated
intra-articular injections have been reported to result in damage to the
articular cartilage and should be avoided. Temporary periods of rest may
also alleviate the symptoms.
There are studies which suggest that conservative treatment in anterior
knee pain may result in an initial improvement in up to 87% of patients.
However this diminishes to 60% on follow up at three months. A study by
Goodfellow et al demonstrated that, in a cohort of femalepatients with
anterior knee pain, 49% of patients improved following an average 16 month
duration of conservative therapy. However it was also noted that 96% of
patients retain some anterior knee pain at final follow up.
In a recent study undertaken by the author in patients with synovial
plica syndrome, improvement occurred in only 28% of patients over a two
year period treated by diagnostic arthroscopy and conservative measures.
This compares with a 96% improvement following surgical division of the
synovial plica. Thus the expected improvement in the symptoms of anterior
knee pain with time may be sustained by hope and fustration rather than
any objective evidence.
THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN
The surgical treatment of anterior knee pain may include excision of
the degenerative area within the patellar tendon in patellar tendonitis.
The central portion of the patellar tendon may be released from the inferior
pole of the patella although this may be unnecessary and may reduce the
strength of the patellar tendon. Peri-patellar bursitis may be treated
by aspiration, injection or excision if necessary. Arthroscopic surgery
may be undertaken to: remove anterior meniscal tears, remove meniscal
cysts, to decompress meniscal cysts, to remove loose bodies in the front
of the knee and to debride areas of osteochondritis dissecans.
Cruciate ligament reconstruction may alleviate the anterior knee pain
associated with these conditions. However, any retro-patellar articular
degeneration may not be reversible. As already stated following anterior
cruciate ligament reconstruction using the central third of the patellar
tendon, an instance of 20% of anterior knee pain has been noted. Atension
to detail during surgery may reduce this incidence. Arthroscopy and arthroscopic
excision of the fat pad may be undertaken in Hoffa's syndrome where the
hypertrophic fat pad or infra-patellar xanthoma may be removed. The condition
of peri-patella pannus formation or quadriceps fibrosis where an excessive
fibrous reaction occurs in the synovium around the patella. The hypertrophic
synovium encroaches into the patello-femoral joint causing impingement
and pain. Local synovectomymay be of benefit. In similar way, synovial
tumours such as lipoma, pedunculated fibromas intra-articular xanthomas
and areas of pigmented villo-nodular synovitis may arthroscopically excised.
It may also be possible to remove benign bony tumours arround the knee
such as a solitary enchondroma arthroscopically. / In the condition of
lateral patellar hyper-pressure syndrome, lateral patellar tilt and lateral
patello-femoral facet chondromlacia, lateral retinacular pain, lateral
retinacular nerve injury or patello-femoral subluxation arthroscopic lateral
retinacular release may give symptomatic relief.
Minor degrees of patello-femoral subluxation without dislocation, may
be relieved by arthroscopic lateral release although there is a described
incidence of recurrence. Risk factors include multiple ligamentous laxity,
paella alta, hyperplastic femoral condyle, increased 'Q' angle, external
tibial torsion, persistent femoral anteversion or an avulsed and ruptured
vastus medialis. In athletes having sustained a single dislocation of
the patello-femoral joint, I prefer to undertake early arthroscopy, drainage
of the haematoma, debridement of any articular damage and arthroscopic
lateral release followed by early rehabilitation including quadriceps
strengthening exercises. Empricle lateral release for anterior knee pain
is undertaken in some centres but must be strongly discouraged as inappropriate
lateral release may produce medial patella dislocation and other problems.
/ In patients with recurrent patello-femoral subluxation, as an initial
procedure I use arthroscopic lateral release in isolation unless multiple
ligamentous laxity or other gross deformity is present. In the presence
of risk factors or multiple ligamentous laxity, I prefer to combine arthroscopic
lateral release with repair of the vastus medialis and transposition of
the vastus medialis to the anterior medial surface of the patella. I combine
this with an extra-articular modified Elmsley-Trillat procedure in which
the tibial tuberosity is elevated on a distal base rotated medially and
fixed with a single screw. In many instances, if fixation is adequate,
early rehabilitation can be undertaken without the need for an immobilisation
in a plaster cast or splint. Discharge from hospital is present after
one or two nights and early return to full activity after only 6 weeks
may be expected. I find that this procedure leaves only two 2 cm long
scars at the superior medial border of the patella and to the lateral
side of the tibial tuberosity. There is minimal inhibition of the quadriceps
muscle and no ugly deformity or scarring of the knee results.
Arthroscopic surgery for chondromalacia or articular cartilage defects
in the patello-femoral joint is difficult and the results of such treatment
are not well defined. Generally loose articular fonds and fragments may
be removed. Any articular cartilage adherent to the subchondral bone may
be assumed to be functional and should not be removed only to improve
the visual appearances. Abrasion chondroplasty or articular drilling with
a 1mm drill are the techniques for abrading the exposed subchondral bone
in the base of articular defects in order to promote the ingress of fibrous
tissue. This tissue may cover the exposed bone and provide a new articular
surface composed of fibrous scar tissue. This may in some cases relieve
for a time the pain experienced. The fibrous tissue is never as good as
articular cartilage and therefore excision of the lose articular fragments
and fronds should be kept to a minimum. It is suggested in the literature
that the maximum area of exposed bone which may be helped by an abrasion
chondroplasty may be as small as 1 cm in diameter.
Chondromalacia of the femoral trochlear groove presents a difficult problem.
This situation is commonly found in association with netball, basketball
and Australian Rules football which require jumping. Abrasion chondroplasty
is usually undertaken.
Arthroscopic surgery for chondromalacia in other sites should also be
directed to the primary cause if one is present. If the chondromalacia
is secondary to lateral hyper-pressure, lateral patello-femoral subluxation
or dislocation, then this is treated while the chondromalacia is merely
debrided. In the presence of chondromalacia of the central ridge or generalised
over the whole patella there is usually no definable cause treatable by
arthroscopy. Generalised patella chondromalacia or chondromalacia on the
central ridge may be resistant to all other measures. In this situation
subsequently a Macquet type advancement of the tibial tuberosity may be
undertaken in mature patients. This should only be undertaken after due
consultation in view of the ugly scar, the resulting deformity of the
knee and the expected success in only 50% of patients.
I avoid patellectomy if at all possible despite persistent anterior knee
pain. There is persistent weakness of the quadriceps muscle estimated
at 30% which results in poor function, and in addition, excessive compressive
forces are transmitted to the tibio femoral joint and acceleration of
any degenerative change in the knee joint occurs. Although total knee
replacement in the absence of a patella is technically possible the resulting
function is poor. It has been my experience that patellectomy is also
associated with persistent knee pain, the formation of bone fragments
beneath the patellar tendon which may cause persistent anterior knee pain.
On three occasions I have undertaken late debridement and lateral release
of the repaired quadriceps/patellar tendon because of anterior knee pain,
lateral retinacular pain, lateral tendon subluxation and restricted knee
Though I believe that conservative therapy for anterior knee pain is
sufficient in approximately 50% of patients, of those remaining I believe
that a clinical definable pathology is present in perhaps 80% to 90% of
patients. Of these patients, 80% may be amenable to surgical therapy.
There does, however, remain a proportion of patients complaining of anterior
knee pain in which no definable pathological cause may be found. In these
cases, reflex sympathetic dystrophy must be considered, although the treatment
of reflex sympathetic dystrophy is difficult.
The management of anterior knee pain demands an understanding of the
numerous pathological entities which may cause it. A careful relevant
history and examination is necessary. If properly organised conservative
treatment is unsuccessful a variety of surgical procedures are available.
Successful treatment may be possible in up to 90% of patients, whereas
without proper treatment there is little evidence that the symptoms will
settle and in some cases patello-femoral arthritis may be avoidable. The
attitude that anterior knee pain is a self limiting condition in patients
with underlying neurotic personalities should be condemned to the archives
of orthopaedic surgery.